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J Sports Sci. 2004 Sep;22(9):851-7. «The creatine content of Creatine Serum and the change in the plasma concentration with ingestion of a single dose.«
No increase in plasma or urinary creatine or creatinine was found on ingestion of Creatine Serum or water. Analysis showed 5 ml of Creatine Serum to contain
Journal of Exercise Physiologyonline. Volume 6 Number 4 November 2003. «EFFECTS OF SERUM CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON MUSCLE CREATINE AND PHOSPHAGEN LEVELS«
The present study indicates that low and high dose Creatine Serum supplementation has no effects on muscle creatine levels. Therefore, there is no physiological basis for claims that Creatine Serum enhances exercise performance capacity, improves training adaptations, and/or is a more superior form of creatine than creatine monohydrate.
J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):272-5. «Creatine serum is not as effective as creatine powder for improving cycle sprint performance in competitive male team-sport athletes.«
The present data support previous research findings showing an ergogenic effect of creatine monohydrate powder supplementation but indicate that supplementation with Creatine Serum does not affect sprint cycling performance. Although the levels of creatine in each formulation were not determined, a substantial conversion of creatine into creatinine has been reported in many formulations and may explain the present findings.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002 Jul 31;29(5):939-45. «A simple LC method with UV detection for the analysis of creatine and creatinine and its application to several creatine formulations.«
Substantial conversion of creatine into creatinine was noticed in liquid formulation.
- Amino Acids. 2011 May; 40(5): 1369–1383. «Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine«